Amphipoda: Families and Subfamilies

J.K. Lowry & R.T. Springthorpe

Talitridae Raphinesque, 1815

Description. Head free, not coalesced with peraeonite 1; exposed; as long as deep, or longer than deep, or deeper than long; rostrum present or absent, short; eyes present, well developed or obsolescent, or absent; not coalesced; 1 pair; not bulging. Body laterally compressed; cuticle with deep sensory pits, or smooth.

Antenna 1 shorter than antenna 2; peduncle with sparse robust and slender setae; 3-articulate; peduncular article 1 shorter than article 2, or subequal to article 2, or longer than article 2; antenna 1 article 2 shorter than article 3, or subequal to article 3, or longer than article 3; peduncular articles 1-2 not geniculate; accessory flagellum absent; antenna 1 callynophore absent. Antenna 2 present; short, or medium length, or long; articles not folded in zigzag fashion; without hook-like process; flagellum shorter than peduncle, or longer than peduncle; 5 or more articulate; not clavate; calceoli absent.

Mouthparts well developed. Mandible incisor dentate; lacinia mobilis present on both sides; accessory setal row without distal tuft; molar present, medium, triturative; palp absent. Maxilla 1 present; inner plate present, weakly setose apically; palp present or absent, not clavate, 0 -articulate or 1 -articulate or 2 -articulate. Maxilla 2 inner plate present; outer plate present. Maxilliped inner and outer plates well developed or reduced, palps present, well developed or reduced; inner plates well developed, separate; outer plates present, small or vestigial; palp 4-articulate or 3-articulate, article 3 without rugosities. Labium smooth.

Peraeon. Peraeonites 1-7 separate; complete; sternal gills absent; pleurae absent.

Coxae 1-7 well developed, none fused with peraeonites. Coxae 1-4 longer than broad or as long as broad or broader than long, overlapping, coxa 1 anteroventrally acuminate or coxae not acuminate. Coxae 1-3 not successively smaller, none vestigial. Coxae 2-4 none immensely broadened.

Gnathopod 1 sexually dimorphic; smaller (or weaker) than gnathopod 2, or subequal to gnathopod 2; smaller than coxa 2; gnathopod 1 merus and carpus not rotated; gnathopod 1 carpus/propodus not cantilevered; shorter than propodus, or subequal to propodus, or longer than propodus; gnathopod 1 slightly produced along posterior margin of propodus, or not produced along posterior margin of propodus; dactylus large. Gnathopod 2 sexually dimorphic; subchelate, or chelate; coxa smaller than but not hidden by coxa 3, or subequal to but not hidden by coxa 3; ischium short; merus not fused along posterior margin of carpus or produced away from it; carpus/propodus not cantilevered, carpus short, shorter than propodus or subequal to propodus or longer than propodus, slightly produced along posterior margin of propodus or not produced along posterior margin of propodus.

Peraeopods heteropodous (3-4 directed posteriorly, 5-7 directed anteriorly), none prehensile. Peraeopod 3 well developed. Peraeopod 4 well developed. 3-4 not glandular; 3-7 without hooded dactyli, 3-7 propodi without distal spurs. Coxa well developed, broader than long; carpus subequal to propodus, not produced; dactylus well developed. Coxa subequal to coxa 3 or larger than coxa 3, not acuminate, with well developed posteroventral lobe or without posteroventral lobe or with small posterior lobe; carpus not produced. Peraeopods 5-7 with few robust or slender setae; dactyli without slender or robust setae. Peraeopod 5 well developed; shorter than peraeopod 6; coxa smaller than coxa 4 or subequal to coxa 4 or larger than coxa 4, with ventrally produced posterior lobe and with posterodorsal lobe; basis expanded, subovate, with posteroventral lobe or without posteroventral lobe; merus/carpus free; carpus linear; setae absent. Peraeopod 6 shorter than peraeopod 7, or longer than peraeopod 7; merus/carpus free; dactylus without setae. Peraeopod 7 with 6-7 well developed articles; longer than peraeopod 5; similar in structure to peraeopod 6; with 7 articles; basis expanded, without dense slender setae; dactylus without setae.

Pleon. Pleonites 1-3 without transverse dorsal serrations, without dorsal carina; without slender or robust dorsal setae. Epimera 1-3 present. Epimeron 1 well developed. Epimeron 2 without setae.

Urosome not dorsoventrally flattened; urosomites 1 to 3 free; urosomite 1 longer than urosomite 2; urosome urosomites not carinate; urosomites 1-2 without transverse dorsal serrations. Uropods 1-2 apices of rami with robust setae. Uropods 1-3 similar in structure and size. Uropod 1 peduncle without long plumose setae, without basofacial robust seta, with ventromedial spur or without ventromedial spur. Uropod 2 well developed; without ventromedial spur, without dorsal flange; inner ramus subequal to outer ramus, or longer than outer ramus. Uropod 3 not sexually dimorphic; peduncle short; outer ramus shorter than peduncle, 1-articulate, without recurved spines. Telson weakly thickened dorsoventrally, or thickened dorsoventrally; moderately cleft, or weakly cleft, or notched, or entire; as long as broad, or broader than long; apical robust setae present, or absent.

Remarks. All of the Orchestia, Talitrus and Talorchestia have to be checked at generic level.


Cite this publication as: 'J.K. Lowry & R.T. Springthorpe (2001 onwards). Amphipoda: Families and Subfamilies. Version 1: 1 September 2001. http://crustacea.net/'. Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993, 1995, 2000) should also be cited (see References).

Index