Australian Isopoda: Families

S.J. Keable, G.C.B. Poore & G.D.F. Wilson

Stephen J. Keable, Marine Invertebrate Section,
Australian Museum,
6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.
Email: stephenk@austmus.gov.au.

Gary C.B. Poore, Crustacea Section,
Museum Victoria,
GPO Box 666E, Melbourne, Victoria, 3001, Australia.
Email: gpoore@museum.vic.gov.au

George (Buz) D.F. Wilson, Centre for Evolutionary Research,
Australian Museum,
6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.
Email: buzw@austmus.gov.au.

Introduction

This database has been compiled initially to aid identification of Australian marine Isopoda to family. It has been built by extracting character information from the literature for those taxa so far recorded from this region, and merging existing DELTA datasets of the families Anthuridea and Valvifera written by G.C.B. Poore (see Poore, 2001a, b). It is part of the crustacea.net project initiated by J.K. Lowry (see http://www.crustacea.net/index.htm). The user is referred to the interactive key to crustacean higher taxa (Lowry, 1999 onwards) for initial identification of their material to the order Isopoda. The database of Lowry (1999) uses suborders of the Isopoda which are also contained in the present database, however, knowledge of these suborders is not essential in order to be able to use the present database to identify isopods to family (although it can speed the identification process through use of the "Suborder" character - this character appears only in "natural order" see INTKEY documentation outlined below).

For Instructions on how to use INTKEY see the file intkey.doc supplied with the program and also http://www.crustacea.net/how.htm. This database contains both taxon and character images. Images giving an overview of isopod morphology can be obtained via a word document accessed from the "morphology" heading listing under the "Introduction and references" button.

Alternatively, these images can be accessed from the character listing "morphology", and can be viewed while undertaking identifications by opening and using the database in a second window. The character images are active (i.e. contain "hotspots") which allow selection of the appropriate character state by a double click of the mouse button. For identification it is recommended that character images be set to auto (Settings Display Images Auto - see INTKEY Help for instructions on how to set this as the default) because the majority of characters are illustrated. Utilisation of the "Best order" option for characters is also recommended for identification purposes. If characters are not illustrated then information regarding it can be obtained from the images of general isopod morphology outlined above.

Taxon information can be obtained by double clicking in the "Remaining Taxa" or "Eliminated Taxa" windows, or via the "Information" button. Information on distributions, included genera and synonymies (restricted to primary and recent references) is contained under the heading "Full description" and is accessed as outlined above.

Information on references cited and terms used can by obtained via the "Glossary" and "References" listings found under the "Introduction and references" button.

Although the database is aimed at aiding identification of Australian marine Isopoda it is planned to expand it to other regions. Therefore, several families not yet recorded from Australia have been included, these are indicated under the heading "Distribution" for each taxon which can be accessed as described above.

Isopod family name endings have often been emended in recent times following the lead of Sivertsen & Holthuis (1980), for example Munnopsididae rather than Munnopsidae (see Just 2001c). The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999 edition) Article 29.3.1.1, however, simplifies the creation of family-level names. It states "If the stem so formed [see earlier part of article 29] ends in -id, those letters may be elided before adding the family-group suffixes. If, however, the unelided form is in prevailing usage, that spelling is to be maintained, whether or not it is the original spelling". Despite this wording, the Code's example is drawn from the opposite case of prevailing usage, a previously elided form that is not corrected to the unelided form: Haliotidae as opposed to Haliotididae. Because the code says "may" in the first sentence, it appears to be advisory. In this database prevailing usage is considered to be that recorded by Martin & Davis (2000), previously elided family names are not emended and previously emended names are maintained.

Introduction to the Isopoda

The Isopoda is a monophyletic order of crustaceans within the superorder Peracarida containing 9,000-11,000 named marine, freshwater and terrestrial species (Brusca & Brusca, 1990; Bruce, 2001). Synapomorphies which define this order include: (1) sessile eyes (when present); (2) the carapace reduced to a cephalic shield; (3) all pereopods lacking exopods; (4) pleonite 6 fused to the telson forming a pleotelson; (5) biphasic moulting; (6) a thoraco-abdominal heart; (7) abdominal branchial structures; (8) an ectodermally derived gut without a true midgut region; (9) the presence of striated muscles with a unique myofibril ultrastructure; and (10) uropodal rami which are always uniarticulate (Brusca & Wilson, 1991). Synapomorphies (1), (2) and (3) may be convergent with the condition found in the peracaridan order Amphipoda, and synapomorphy (4) with the condition occurring in the order Tanaidacea but confirmation of this requires further analysis of the entire Peracarida (Brusca & Wilson, 1991). Other features which characterise some peracaridan orders and which are also found in the Isopoda include: the first thoracomere fused to the head; one pair of maxillipeds; the pereopodal coxae expanded to form coxal plates; the presence of oostegites in females; a manca stage in the life cycle; and well developed, biramous pleopods which are used for gas exchange and swimming (Brusca & Brusca, 1990). Several phylogenetic studies have emphasised problems with the existing subordinal classification of the Isopoda (Wägele, 1989; Brusca & Wilson, 1991; Tabacaru & Danielopol, 1999). Many of these problems are summarised by Martin & Davis (2001) and further examined by Dreyer & Wägele (2002). Aspects of isopod anatomy, systematics and biology have recently been reviewed by Roman & Dalens (1999) and Trilles (1999).

Monographs Monograph and Interactive Keys Interactive Key

Isopoda Orders

Monograph Interactive Key

Anthuridea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Asellota (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Calabozoidea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Epicaridea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Flabellifera (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Gnathiidea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Microcerberidea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Oniscidea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Phreatoicidea (Isopoda)

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Isopoda Families

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Acanthaspidiidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Actaeciidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Aegidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Ancinidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Antarcturidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Antheluridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Anthuridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Anuropidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Arcturidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Arcturididae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Austrarcturellidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Bathynataliidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Bopyridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Chaetiliidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Cirolanidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Corallanidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Cymothoidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Dendrotiidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Entoniscidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Expanathuridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Gnathiidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Hadromastacidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Holognathidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Holidoteidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Hyssuridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Idoteidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Janiridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Joeropsididae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Keuphyliidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Leptanthuridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Ligiidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Limnoriidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Munnidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Munnopsididae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Paramunnidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Paranthuridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Phoratopodidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Plakarthriidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Pseudidotheidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Pseudojaniridae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Rectarcturidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Santiidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Scyphacidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Serolidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Sphaeromatidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Stenetriidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Tecticipitidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Tridentellidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Tylidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Xenarcturidae

Monograph Interactive Key (not available)

Cite this publication as: 'S.J. Keable, G.C.B. Poore & G.D.F. Wilson (2002 onwards). 'Australian Isopoda: Families. Version: 2 October 2002. http://crustacea.net'.